Rails-like PHP url router

Posted by Dan Sosedoff on September 20, 2009

My previous version of php url router was not good enough, so i`ve done some core modification to the class. Its more flexible now. The whole idea is very similar to Rails` and Merb`s url router (merb is a rails-fork). In fact, previous version doesn`t even support GET variables in the request uri. New version just merges variables from request string into the same parameters array where other variables are stored. Also there is a command “default_routes” that maps default routes like this “/:controller/:action/:id”. So, basically you have two options – use defaults & custom routes or use only custom, which means that all other requests will be ignored. Function default_routes must be declared last.

Here is the sources:

define('ROUTER_DEFAULT_ACTION', 'index');
class Router {
  public $request_uri;
  public $routes;
  public $controller, $controller_name;
  public $action, $id;
  public $params;
  public $route_found = false;
  public function __construct() {
    $request = $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'];
    $pos = strpos($request, '?');
    if ($pos) $request = substr($request, 0, $pos);
    $this->request_uri = $request;
    $this->routes = array();
  public function map($rule, $target=array(), $conditions=array()) {
    $this->routes[$rule] = new Route($rule, $this->request_uri, $target, $conditions);
  public function default_routes() {
  private function set_route($route) {
    $this->route_found = true;
    $params = $route->params;
    $this->controller = $params['controller']; unset($params['controller']);
    $this->action = $params['action']; unset($params['action']);
    $this->id = $params['id']; 
    $this->params = array_merge($params, $_GET);
    if (empty($this->controller)) $this->controller = ROUTER_DEFAULT_CONTROLLER;
    if (empty($this->action)) $this->action = ROUTER_DEFAULT_ACTION;
    if (empty($this->id)) $this->id = null;
    $w = explode('_', $this->controller);
    foreach($w as $k => $v) $w[$k] = ucfirst($v);
    $this->controller_name = implode('', $w);
  public function execute() {
    foreach($this->routes as $route) {
      if ($route->is_matched) {
class Route {
  public $is_matched = false;
  public $params;
  public $url;
  private $conditions;
  function __construct($url, $request_uri, $target, $conditions) {
    $this->url = $url;
    $this->params = array();
    $this->conditions = $conditions;
    $p_names = array(); $p_values = array();
    preg_match_all('@:([\w]+)@', $url, $p_names, PREG_PATTERN_ORDER);
    $p_names = $p_names[0];
    $url_regex = preg_replace_callback('@:[\w]+@', array($this, 'regex_url'), $url);
    $url_regex .= '/?';
    if (preg_match('@^' . $url_regex . '$@', $request_uri, $p_values)) {
      foreach($p_names as $index => $value) $this->params[substr($value,1)] = urldecode($p_values[$index]);
      foreach($target as $key => $value) $this->params[$key] = $value;
      $this->is_matched = true;
    unset($p_names); unset($p_values);
  function regex_url($matches) {
    $key = str_replace(':', '', $matches[0]);
    if (array_key_exists($key, $this->conditions)) {
      return '('.$this->conditions[$key].')';
    else {
      return '([a-zA-Z0-9_\+\-%]+)';

Setup example:

$r = new Router(); // create router instance 
$r->map('/', array('controller' => 'home')); // main page will call controller "Home" with method "index()"
$r->map('/login', array('controller' => 'auth', 'action' => 'login'));
$r->map('/logout', array('controller' => 'auth', 'action' => 'logout'));
$r->map('/signup', array('controller' => 'auth', 'action' => 'signup'));
$r->map('/profile/:action', array('controller' => 'profile')); // will call controller "Profile" with dynamic method ":action()"
$r->map('/users/:id', array('controller' => 'users'), array('id' => '[\d]{1,8}')); // define filters for the url parameters

Usage example:

$router = new Router();
// ... some configs ...
$controller = $router->controller; // will return name as it appears in url, ex: 'user_images'
$controller = $router->controller_name; // will return processed name of controller
// for example, if class name in url is 'user_images', then 'controller_name' var will be UserImages
$router->id; // if parameter :id presents
$router->params; // array(...)
$router->route_matched; // true - if route found, false - if not

Small and useful class.


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